New States in India since 1950 and Article 3


New States in India since 1950

Compiled from Wikipedia &  http://www.scribd.com/archive/plans?doc=128706219

Project Work on ARTICLE 3 OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION by Parul Prasad, NALSAR UNIVERSITY OF LAW, HYDERABAD

Following are the new states in India created after 1950.

Andhra : State of Andhra Pradesh Created in 1953 by carving out Telugu speaking areas of Rayala Seema and Coastal Andhra from the State of Madras.

The following list sets out the states and union territories of India as reorganised on 1 November 1956:

  1. Andhra State was merged with the Telugu-speaking Telangana area of Hyderabad state to create Andhra Pradesh in 1956.
  2. Assam: No change of boundary in 1956.
  3. Bihar: reduced slightly by the transfer of minor territories to West Bengal.
  4. Bombay State: the state was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra and Kutch, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh, and the Marathwada region of Hyderabad. The state’s southernmost districts of Bombay were transferred to Mysore State. (In 1960, Bombay State was split into Maharashtra and Gujarat.)
  5. Jammu and Kashmir: No change of boundary in 1956.
  6. Kerala: formed by the merger of Travancore-Cochin state with the Malabar district of Madras State, Kasaragod of South Canara (Dakshina Kannada). The southern part of Travancore-Cochin, Kanyakumari district was transferred to Madras State.
  7. Madhya Pradesh: Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal State were merged into Madhya Pradesh; the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division were transferred to Bombay State.
  8. Madras State: Malabar District was transferred to the new state of Kerala, and a new union territory, Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islands, was created. The southern part of Travancore-Cochin (Kanyakumari district) was added to the state. (The state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968.)
  9. Mysore State: enlarged by the addition of Coorg state and the Kannada speaking districts from southern Bombay state and western Hyderabad state. (The state was renamed Karnataka in 1973.)
  10. Orissa: No change of boundary in 1956.
  11. Punjab: enlarged by addition of the Patiala and East Punjab States Union.
  12. Rajasthan: enlarged by the addition of Ajmer state and parts of Bombay and Madhya Bharat states.
  13. Uttar Pradesh: No change of boundary in 1956.
  14. West Bengal: enlarged by addition of minor territory previously forming part of Bihar.

Union territories

  1. Chandigarh
  2. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  3. Delhi
  4. Himachal Pradesh
  5. Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islands: created from territory detached from Madras State. (The union territory was renamed as Lakshadweep in 1973.)
  6. Manipur
  7. Tripura

Post 1956

  • Gujarat and Maharashtra: The State of Mumbai was divided into two States i.e. Maharashtra and Gujarat by the Mumbai (Reorganisation) Act 1960
  • Kerala: Created by the State Reorganisation Act, 1956. It comprised Travancore and Cochin areas
  • Karnataka: Created from the Princely State of Mysuru by the State Reorganisation Act, 1956. It was renamed Karnataka in 1973.
  • Nagaland: It was carved out from the State of Asom by the State of Nagaland Act, 1952
  • Haryana: It was carved out from the State of Punjab by the Punjab (Reorganisation) Act,1966
  • Himachal Pradesh: The Union Territory of Himachal Pradesh was elevated to the status of State by the State of Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970
  • Meghalaya: First carved out as a sub-State within the State of Asom by 23 Constitutional Amendment Act, 1969. Later in 1971, it received the status of a full-fledged State by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act 1971
  • Manipur and Tripura: Both these States were elevated from the status of Union-Territories by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act 1971
  • Sikkim: Sikkim was first given the Status of Associate State by the 35th Constitutional Amendment Act 1974. It got the status of a full State in 1975 by the 36th Amendment Act, 1975
  • Mizoram:  It was elevated to the status of a full State by the State of Mizoram Act, 1986
  • Arunachal Pradesh: It received the status of a full state by the State of Arunachal Pradesh Act, 1986
  • Goa: Goa was separated from the Union-Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu and was made a full-fledged State of Goa, Daman and Diu Reorganisation Act 1987. But Daman and Diu remained as Union Territory
  • Chhattisgarh: According to the procedure prescribed in Article 3, a bill for creation of Chhattisgarh was drafted by Union Government and then sent to Madhya Pradesh where it was unanimously approved. Both Congress and BJP, the leading national parties, supported the resolution in the State Assembly of Madhya Pradesh. The election manifestos of both Congress and BJP included demand for creation of separate Chhattisgarh. The bill was then passed in both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha after which the President gave the consent, thereby creating new state of Chhattisgarh on 1st November 2000. Chhattisgarh comprises sixteen districts of Madhya Pradesh: Bastar, Bilaspur, Dantewada, Dhamtari, Durg, Janjgir, Jashpur, Kanker, Kawardha, Korba, Koriya, Mahasamund, Raigarh, Raipur, Rajnandgaon, and Surguja. [[4]]
  • Uttarakhand: State of Uttar Pradesh passed a motion demanding Uttarakhand on 12 August 1991. The Central Government under NDA drafted the bill in 1994 and through the President of India asked the state assembly to provide its opinion on various provisions of the bill. The State Assembly adopted a resolution for creation of Uttarakhand on 24 August 1994 with as nearly 26 amendments, including the one to exclude Haridwar from becoming part of the new state. It also excluded giving rights over many irrigation and power projects and natural resources. The State Assembly passed another motion on 24 April 1997. The bill for creation of Uttarakhand was passed in Lok Sabha on 1 Aug 2000 which negated some of the amendments made by the state assembly, like the which sought exclusion of Haridwar. The state of Uttarakhand was created on 9 November 2000. Uttarakhand comprises thirteen districts of Uttar Pradesh: Almora, Bageshwar, Chamoli, Champawat, Dehradun, Haridwar, Nainital, Pauri Garhwal, Pithoragarh, Rudra Prayag, Tehri Garhwal, Udham Singh Nagar, and Uttarkashi. In January, 2007 Uttarakhand was renamed as Uttaranchal. [[5]]
  • Jharkhand: The state of Bihar took the initiative in creation of Jharkhand when Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council was formed in 1995 comprising 18 districts. Coming under the pressure from Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) which supported Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) to form the government, Bihar adopted a resolution for creation of Jharkhand on 22 July 1997. However, a year later, Lalu Prasad Yadav of RJD reversed his earlier position. In the next election, RJD needed support from Congress to form the government. Congress extended the support on the condition that Jharkhand is formed. Lok Sabha passed the bill in the year 2000 though two key allies of NDA, and RJD and CPI-M opposing the bill after which the state of Jharkhand was formed on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand state split from Bihar, as provided by the Bihar Reorganization Bill, which was passed on 2000-08-02. Jharkhand comprises eighteen districts of Bihar: Bokaro, Chatra, Deoghar, Dhanbad, Dumka, East Singbhum, Garhwa, Giridih, Godda, Gumla, Hazaribagh, Koderma, Lohardaga, Pakur, Palamau, Ranchi, Sahibganj, and West Singbhum. Ranchi, formerly the summer capital of Bihar, became the capital of Jharkhand.

Article 3 in The Constitution of India

Article 3 of the Indian Constitution enables Parliament to effect by law re-organisation inter se of the territories of the States constituting the Indian Union. The provisions of Article 3 are as follows:

Article 3  - Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States

Parliament may by law –

  • form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two or more States or parts of States or by uniting any territory to a part of any State;
  • increase the area of any State;
  • diminish the area of any State;
  • alter the boundaries of any State;
  • alter the name of any State:

Provided that no Bill for the purpose shall be introduced in either House of Parliament except on the recommendation of the President and unless, where the proposal contained in the Bill affects the area, boundaries or name of any of the States, the Bill has been referred by the President to the Legislature of that State for expressing its views thereon within such period as may be specified in the reference or within such further period as the President may allow and the period so specified or allowed has expired. 

Explanation I- In this article, in clauses (a) to (e), State includes a Union territory, but in the proviso, State does not include a Union territory. 

Explanation II- The power conferred on Parliament by clause (a) includes the power to form a new State or Union territory by uniting a part of any State or Union territory to any other State or Union territory.

Article 3 has empowered the parliament that it “may by law form a new state by separation of territory from any state or by uniting two or more states or part of the states or by uniting any territory to a part of any state ….” The spirit behind this concept of federal structure of the country with a strong centre as envisaged in the Constitution was to ensure the geographical, political and economic unification of the diverse Indian society for the overall welfare and equal opportunities for the growth of its people.

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